By Huỳnh Kiên Trung
Subversion (SVN) command summary cheat sheet, use, best practices, tips and scripts. This tutorial covers version control with Subversion using the command line interface, GUI clients and scripts which interface Subversion with GUI diff tools.
Subversion command summary cheat sheet:
|svn --help||List Subversion commands|
|svn help command
Also: ? or h
|Help on given “command“|
|svn add filenamesvn add directory||Add a file or directory to Subversion CM control.
Must also perform: svn ci filename (or svn commit) to upload the file or directory. File will not be available in the repository until a “commit” is performed. If adding a directory, the directory and all of its contents recursively are added. i.e.:
svn ci directory
svn commit directory
svn commit .
|svn blame filename
svn blame -r RevisionNumber filename
Also: praise, annotate, ann
|Show file contents with revisions annotated with author information.|
|svn cat filename||List contents of file under Subversion control.|
|svn checkout http://node-name/repos/svn/trunk/parentPath/path
...svn checkout http://node-name/repos/svn/trunk/parentPath .
Note the difference a "." makes.
svn checkout file:///repos/svn/trunk/path/
|Checkout every file from the path and subdirectories specified below. Creates “working” copy of files and directories.
Checkout a repository.Use option “-r” to specify a specific revision other than the latest.
The URL “svn://” communicates with an SVN server (port 3690)
The URL “http://” comunicates with the Apache server and module mod_dav_svn (port 80) [more common server]
|svn cleanup||Cleanup subversion files resulting from escaped processes and crashed.|
|svn commit filename
svn commit --message "Message goes here." filename
svn commit -m "Message goes here." filename
svn ci filename1 filename2 filename3
svn ci .
|Check-in (commit) local “working” file, files or directory and contents (recursively) into Subversion repository. Atomic, i.e. all committed or none, no incomplete check-in.|
|svn copy source destination_clone
Also: svn cp ...
|Copy file or directory tree. One can copy from one local working copy to another or to repository server URL’s. The sources and destinations can be working copies or URLs.|
|svn copy http://host/repos/project/trunk http://host/repos/project/tags/TagName-1.4.5 -m "Tag Release 1.4.5"||Tag a release. Takes a snapshot of the repository and assigns a name. This can be performed at any directory branch.|
|svn copy . http://host/repos/project/tags/TagName-1.4.5 -m "Tag Release 1.4.5"||Tag a release. Takes a snapshot of your local working copy and assigns a name. This can be performed at any directory branch.|
|svn delete filename
svn delete directory
Also: del, remove or rm
svn rm http://host/repos/project/trunk/file-or-directory
|Delete file from repository. The UNIX command rm file-name. Must perform a “commit” to update the repository and local working directory with the changes. i.e.:
svn commit .
|svn diff filename
svn di filename
|Show file diffs between SVN repository and your file changes using GNU file diff format. Use GUI diff tools as shown below.|
|svn diff -r rev1:rev2 filename||Show file diffs between specified versions.
Example: svn diff -r 456:459 subfn.cpp
Using GUI diff tool: svn diff -r 457:459 --diff-cmd kdiff3 file-name
|svn diff filename > patch-file||Generate patch file used by the patch command.|
|svn export directory||Export directory tree to your file system but it will not be a “working directory” under SVN control.|
|svn export -r Rev-Number http://node-name/path||Export directory tree of specified version and create local directory tree and files not under SVN control.|
|svn import local-directory http://node/repos/svn/trunk/directory||Add directory (and files in it recursively) to path in repository specified.|
|svn info filename||Display information about file or directory. (Date modified, author, revision, path in repository.)
Can not specify a URL.
|svn list directory
svn list file-name
|List file or directory of files in repository. Used to browse repository before checkout. If current directory is given (svn list ./), then Subversion will list the repository URL of the current directory.|
|svn list -r RevisionNumber directory||List directory of files in repository in specified revision.|
|svn lock filename -m "comment as to why its locked or by whom"
(Comment is not required but is often useful)
|Lock file to grant exclusive access to one and forbid all others. A commit will unlock the file (unless the “–no-unlock” option is used). A lock can be removed with the commands: svn unlock filename, svnlook and the svnadmin comands (i.e. List: svnadmin lslocks and remove: svnadmin rmlocks filename).|
|svn log filename
svn log .
svn log http://URL/path/file
svn log -v .
svn log -r RevisionNumber http://URL/path/file
|Show the Subversion log messages for a set of revision(s) and/or file(s) and/or all directory contents in repository.
List verbose. Includes list of all files in change
Shows the file changes associated with revision number.
|svn merge http://url/path/branch1 http://url/path/branch2 working-local-dir
svn merge file1@revJ file2@revK
svn merge -r 414:411 http://url/path working-dir
svn merge -r 413:HEAD file-name
|Merge directory changes into your current working directory or merge a file in Subversion into the file in your working directory. If target is not specified, the identical basename or current directory is assumed. Used to incorporate changes checked in which are not accounted for in your file or to merge branches.
Example using GUI merge tool:
svn diff -r 459:454 --diff-cmd kdiff3 --extensions '-m' file-name
Next, tell subversion that the conflicts have been resolved:
svn resolve file-name
Finally, check-in file: svn ci file-name
or abort changes: svn revert file-name
|svn merge --dry-run -r 414:413 http://url/path||Test merge. No changes are made to your local working copy but shows Subversion feedback as if merge was performed.|
|svn merge -r 414:413 http://url/path
svn merge -r 414:413 .
|Undo changes committed in revision 414.|
|svn mkdir directory
svn mkdir http://URL/directory
|Create a new directory under version control.|
|svn move directory1 directory2
svn mv directory1 directory2
svn mv file-old-name file-new-name
|Rename or move a file or directory. Moves/renames file/directory in repository and in local work area.
Must perform svn ci file-new-name after the move for changes to to take place in repository.
|svn revert filename||Undo changes in local work files. Throw away local changes.|
|svn resolved filename||Run this command after resolving merge conflicts. Next “commit” your changes.|
svn status -u
svn status -u .
svn status -uq .
|Show status of file changes in current directory and recursively in directories below.
Show out of date file info: svn status --show-updates
(equivalent: svn status -u)
-u: Determines status by comparing your local repository with the server repository. Without this option, the status shown will only be the changes you have made in your local repository.-q: Quiet. Do not print “?: File/directory not under version control” or “!: File/directory missing” extraneous information.
Second collumn: Modification of properties
Third collumn: Locks
|svn switch http://server/new-branch
svn switch --relocate http://server/old-path http://server/new-path
|Switch your local working copy to mirror a new repository branch instead of main trunk or previous branch. Also allows you to point your repository to a new path on the server if the server path changes since you performed a check-out.|
svn update filename
svn update -r458 filename
svn update --ignore-externals ./
|Migrate all updates from Subversion repository to your local copy (recusively for all files in the current directory and all below it). If there have been updates to the svn repository since you downloaded the files, subversion will give you the opportunity to merge. Status of files will use the coding as stated above for “status”. Files marked with a “C” (conflict) should be merged of reverted. If merged then one can perform a “resolve” and then a “check-in”.
If a file name is specified, only that file is updated.
Can also syncronize to a specified revision given by -r.
Use –ignore-externals to avoid the slow processing of externals to a potentially slow distant internet server.
(Assumes that the repository has already been created. For Subversion repository creation and Subversion server configuration, see the (YoLinux Subversion and Trac tutorial)
- Checkout: svn checkout http://svnserver/repos/svn/trunk/Project1
- Go to source code directory: cd Project1/src
- Edit files:
- vi file1.cpp
- vi file2.cpp
- Verify and test: make
We are ready to check-in the files into the Subversion repository.
- Check repository and report on new revisions and changes others have checked in:
- svn status -u .
- After many long hours or days of editing and work, get updates others have made:
- svn update
U file.h C file1.cpp G file2.cpp ? a.out
You will see:
- U: File was updated with a newer version checked-in since your checkout.
- G: Automatically merged with no conflicts.
- C: Not merged due to conflicts. You made changes to the same section of code as the update made by someone else since your checkout.
- For each “conflicted” file there will be three new local files generated by “update”:
- file1.cpp.mine (File – post editing)
- file1.cpp.rold (BASE – pre editing)
- file1.cpp.rnew (HEAD – Updated file from repository)
The file file1.cpp still exists but with svn conflict marker strings added in the file.
At this point, a check-in will fail until the merge is resolved.
- Merge options:
- Edit the file file1.cpp
Text markers are placed in the file to show the conflicts between the “HEAD” and “mine” versions.
- tkdiff -conflict file1.cpp
- Use a GUI merge tool: kdiff3 file1.cpp.mine file1.cpp.rnew -o file1.cpp
- Throw out your changes/abort: svn revert file1.cpp
No resolve or check-in necessary if file is reverted.
- Edit the file file1.cpp
- Verify and test, again: make
- Notify Subversion that conflicts have been resolved: svn resolved file1.cpp
Note: This also removes the temporary files “.mine” and “.r###”.
- Check-in to Subversion repository: svn ci -m "Add comments here" file1.cpp
Member of DragonHolding